From DevOps Dictionary

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Vagrant is a tool which makes it easy to create ephemeral machines for testing and development, by linking together various cloud providers and configuration management systems. Out of the box, Vagrant comes with support for local virtualization using VirtualBox, but many other virtualization providers are available. Vagrant was created by Mitchell Hashimoto and is now provided by Hashicorp, Inc..

By linking together provisioning and configuration management, Vagrant effectively creates a miniature IaaS.

Common Vagrant Use Cases

As a Personal Development Environment

As a Development Environment for Chef, Puppet, Etc.

As a Continuous Integration Component